This project determined and compared the dietary and total (food and dietary supplements) mean usual nutrient intake and proportion meeting recommendations, and dietary quality of U.S. older adults (≥60 years) who use food assistance, including the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP); emergency foods; and community meals or meal delivery; and income-eligible non-participants. Usual nutrient intake among older adults using food assistance and income-eligible non-participants was low with high risk of inadequacy for over 50% of older adults from dietary sources for vitamins D, E, A, C, calcium and magnesium, and total sources for vitamin D, calcium and magnesium. SNAP participants had a higher risk of not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement for vitamin E from diet compared to other non-SNAP program participants (P = 0.001). Dietary quality did not align with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, with Healthy Eating Index-2015 scores ranging from 56 to 61 out of 100; SNAP-only participants had higher dietary quality compared to multiple program participants (P = 0.02). Usual nutrient intakes were inadequate and dietary quality was poor among U.S. older adults eligible for food assistance. Risk for inadequacy was lower after inclusion of dietary supplements.